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ISSN : 1225-8504(Print)
ISSN : 2287-8165(Online)
Journal of the Korean Society of International Agricultue Vol.30 No.1 pp.26-36
DOI : https://doi.org/10.12719/KSIA.2018.30.1.26

A Study on the Irrigation Development Strategy in Malawi : Using the Yeongsan River Basin Integrated Agriculture Project Experiences in South Korea

Hyangmi Yi*†, Jonathan Kafausiyanji**, Cheong-Ryong Lim*, Seok-Ju Lee*
*Rural Research Institute, Korea Rural community Corporation, Ansan, 15634, Korea
**Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development Department of Irrigation, Malawi
Corresponding author +82-31-400-1855yihyangmi@ekr.or.kr
December 22, 2017 March 22, 2018 March 26, 2018

Abstract


Malawi recognizes irrigation as a means to transform the agricultural sector and alleviate rural poverty; however, this sector is not given much attention to perform the much expected wonders. In this study, two closely related elements of institutional policy, legislation and technological research, were examined using the experience of the Yeongsan River Basin Integrated Agriculture Project in South Korea. This study used a comparative analysis based on the hypothesis that effective institutional policy in the agricultural water infrastructure development can open the grid lock within the process of transforming the agricultural sector in Malawi. The aim was to contribute to the analytical knowledge base on transformative agriculture and to provide viewpoints for policy making regarding irrigation development in Malawi. The result of the comparative analysis that legislation, type of governance and organization, and, comprehensiveness of related acts (which were being revised to reflect changing economic environment) has contributed to the transformation of agricultural sector in South Korea. Further, scientific research led to high degree of technological and innovative advancement. From the study, the following policy proposals were suggested: 1) Malawi should consider revolutionizing related legislation in the lines of governance and organization, comprehensiveness of the acts and financing; and 2) Malawi should also consider rationalizing scientific research in the areas of water resource development and management, enhancement of agricultural productivity and investment in rural development.



말라위 관개시설 발전 전략에 관한 연구: 한국의 영산강유역농업종합개발사업의 사례를 중심으로

이 향미*†, 조 나단 칸퓨시안지**, 임 청룡*, 이 석주*
*농어촌연구원
**말라위 농림부 관개시설 개발부

초록


    Introduction

    Irrigation is believed to be one of the areas that hold the potential to hasten agricultural growth in Malawi. The sub sector has registered a low steady annual growth rate of 5% since 2006. Till 2014, only about 4% of crop land was equipped for irrigation though land and water resources are sufficient to more than double the figure. The area equipped for irrigation contributed 7~12% to agricultural sector GDP and 2~4% to the whole economy in 2014. The underdevelopment of this subsector is attributed to many reasons including under capitalization as well as low quality of investments. Some of the possible reasons to making impact are constrained by existing institutional arrangements, and insufficient technological adoption resulting to a logjam to the sub sector’s contribution to agricultural growth.

    In Malawi, main legislation concerned with issues of water resources and irrigation are Water Resources Act of 1969 and Irrigation Act of 2001. The Irrigation Act makes provision for sustainable development and management of irrigation, protection of the environment from irrigation related degradations, establishment of a National Irrigation Board and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Irrigation Master Plan and Investment Framework launched in 2014 outlines priority areas for development, indicators and targets. Success in the decision-making and support system however depend on effective institutional framework as well as advancements in technology to operationalize this analytical framework.

    Institution for sustainable development of irrigated agricultural production systems means complexes of norms and behaviors that persist over time because they are valued and useful in the system. Institutions will have to optimize the use of appropriate technologies and available (or limited) resources. Further, the productivity and sustainability of institutions would depend on the creativity, resourcefulness, honesty and hard work of its participants. It was also noted that instead of limiting and control function, the legislation should play a facilitating role in irrigation management. At the workshop proceedings on institution for irrigated agriculture in Thailand, four particular overlapping issues about institutions for sustainable irrigated agricultural development were identified: legal framework, governance, organizations and finance were identified.

    Besides the observation made at the proceedings of the workshop that countries are moving towards the goals discussed from differing positions and therefore may not pursue the same paths, an effective legislation would address all specific details of the four subject areas mentioned above. The need to optimize the use of appropriate technologies and available (limited) resources within an institution would require development of a technical set of dogma or institutional policies that would form a basis for almost all activities associated with sustainable development of irrigated agriculture framed within national rules.

    Government of Malawi (GoM), (2014), identified weak institutional policy as one of the challenges met in the delivery of projects aimed at improving agricultural productivity and rural development as a whole. It pointed out financing, insecure land ownership and organization as some of the challenges. Although these factors can be covered under legislation or law, it should be noted that the adequacy of implementing mechanisms is as important as legislation. The IMPIF listed fragile catchments resulting in high erosion, rapid loss of soil fertility and subsequent siltation of water sources and downstream flooding, frequent dry spells and/or extreme droughts, limited access to farm inputs and finance, weak linkages to markets and lack of agro processing as factors contributing to low productivity and high vulnerability. These would require a comprehensive and achievable strategy that would ensure development of natural resources and human capital. In this context, sustainable water resource development and systems for efficient agricultural water use and management are paramount.

    The design of the study was based on the hypothesis that effective institutional policy in the agricultural water infrastructure development can open the grid lock within the process of transforming the agricultural sector in Malawi. In this case, institutional policy refers to legislation and technology policy. A case study of Yeongsan River Basin Integrated Agriculture Development Project referred to as “Yeongsan Long and Large Scale Project of South Korea, was used to study elements of transformative agricultural water development project and its effects. The aim was to contribute to the analytical knowledge base of transformative agriculture and provide viewpoints for policy making regarding irrigation development in Malawi.

    South Korea was picked for comparative purpose because of the objectives of the study and the operational conditions for implementation. South Korea has managed agricultural growth and economic development using agricultural water development project as basis for rural and economic transformation. Being an agricultural nation, Malawi thus can learn from Korea’s experience in agricultural evolution. Additionally, South Korea offers favorable condition of operation through partnership with developing countries such as Malawi.

    Specifically, the Yeongsan River Basin Integrated Agricultural Development Project was chosen for its long history that dates as back as 1963. This means the project has experienced all institutional and structural changes up to the present. Learning from it offereds opportunity to understand the whole gamut of agricultural evolution and identified areas to accelerate the process if needed.

    The comparative approach was chosen to illustrate the changes in South Korea’s agriculture in order to identify patterns and differences, the understanding of which can be useful for policy making. The first part generated broad country overviews based on desktop studies on the role of agriculture in each country’s economy. These studies specifically examined physical and economic contexts and their evolution. The second part produced specific information on institutional policy targeting the relevant issues brought out in part one.

    Status of the Agriculture Sector in Malawi

    Economic Situation

    Malawi’s agricultural sector accounts for a third of the total GDP and employs about 80% of the workforce, supporting national food security and exports. The sector is also a source of raw materials for the country’s leading industries; coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, textiles, tobacco and fruits. It forms market for industrial goods and services as pesticides, insecticides, farm machinery, animal feed, fish feed, pipes and other consumer goods and services. Agricultural sector in Malawi has a big influence on economic growth as the industry sector is heavily dependent on agriculture while the other sectors are not well developed.

    The sector has experienced intermittent periods of strong growth and decline over the last decades. After 2003, there was an increase in production and productivity that may be attributed to increased public investments in the agriculture sector to meet the CAADP 10% target of the total budget to agriculture. The increased investment targeted only the input infrastructure on rain fed agriculture. However, despite the said increase in input infrastructure, the corresponding increase in output is small and the sector remains predisposed to weather shocks such as dry spells and/or extreme droughts as well as floods. Figure 1 below shows the five year averages Agriculture GDP per capita (Agriculture) and Total GDP (Total) per capita between 1970 and 2014. It can be deduced from the graph that growth on agriculture GDP has a huge influence on total GDP.

    With a total cultivated land of approximately 5.3 million hectares (ha), the vast majority (over 97 percent) of which is rain fed, Malawi has experienced agricultural stagnation for decades. The agricultural sector is dualistic, comprising the smallholder subsector (2.7 million households) and the (private) estate subsector (approximately 30,000 farms). The predominantly subsistence smallholder farming system relies heavily on rainfall during the one short rainy season from November to March and is vulnerable to unreliable weather.

    Legislation and Strategic Situation

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development (MoAIWD) is the key agency in this sector. It has several line departments and agencies, including the Department of Irrigation (DoI). This department formulates policies and master plans, facilitates development of irrigation schemes; and promotes public participation in irrigation development and management. The Irrigation Act provides for the establishment of the Malawi Irrigation Board. Other ministries and agencies collaborating with MoAIWD on sector wide approaches and multi-sectoral programs in the agriculture, irrigation, natural resources management and land agendas include the Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mining (MoNREM), the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MoLHUD), the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism (MoITT) and the Malawi Investment and Trade Center (MITC).

    According to FAO, 2005, main legislation concerned with issues of water resources and irrigation were the Water Resources Act of 1969 and the Irrigation Act of 2001. The Irrigation Act makes provision for the sustainable development and management of irrigation, protection of the environment from irrigation related degradations, establishment of a National Irrigation Board and other related matters. One major challenge is the ineffectiveness of this act and the absence and/or ineffectiveness of other supportive acts. There is a number legislative issue that that have showed how governance decisions have failed to effect policy and legislative support for longterm objective and sustainable irrigation development.

    Irrigation also occupied a prominent position in a number of sectorial and sub-sectorial strategies and plans including the Irrigation Master Plan (2014), the National Irrigation Policy and Strategy (NIPS, 2016); the National Water Resources Master Plan (1986), the National Water Policy (2005), the Water Resources Investment Strategy (2011), the Malawi Water, Sanitation and Irrigation Sector Strategic Plan (2013); and the National Export Strategy (2013-2018).

    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), endorsed in 2003 (Maputo Decision, 2003) was specially formulated to stimulate the necessary reforms in the agriculture sector and bring agriculture to bear on the socio-economic growth and sustainable development. In CAADP, Africa believed that agriculture and the food industry can be the engine for growth in Africa’s largely agrarian economies, with tangible and sustainable impact on improving food security and nutrition, contributing to wealth and job creation, empowering women and enabling the expansion of exports. Extending the area under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems was the first of the four foundation pillars. This priority area aimed to address some of the basic (natural) resource use aspects of agriculture focusing on sustainable use and productivity of agriculture water in both rain-fed and irrigated systems among others.

    Under the CAADP process, the GoM developed and adopted the Agricultural Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp) (2011-15) and the National Export Strategy. Both advocated strategic investments in programs and initiatives for the transformation of smallholder agriculture, the expansion of irrigation infrastructure, expansion and diversification of exports and expansion of commercial agriculture. The Agricultural Sector-Wide Approach (ASWAp) presented a priority investment program for the sector to accelerate agricultural growth and development based on the priority agricultural elements of MDGS II as well. The ASWAp was constructed around three pillars including sustainable agricultural land and water management.

    After the launch of MDGs, Malawi also launched an overarching strategy, the Vision 2020 in 1998. Under this, GoM implemented some medium term national development strategies: the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy (MPRS), the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS I) (2006-2011) and MGDS II (2011-16). At present, Malawi is implementing MGDS III.

    The Irrigation sub Sector

    The IMPIF defines a development plan and financing framework to guide the expansion of the irrigation subsector over the coming years, highlighting priorities for investment and arrangements for coordination and managing implementation. It also reveals some opportunities including the availability of suitable land for irrigation development and water availability to irrigate some 400,000 hectares in four of every five years after allowing for other uses (domestic, industrial, hydropower and environmental flows) with some potential to generate hydro power to offset the costs of irrigation development.

    It also identifies irrigation as the largest user of water in Malawi and is likely to remain so over the IMPIF period. The draft National Water Resources Master Plan estimates that in the baseline year (2012) irrigation utilized 934 Mm3 of water, representing 73% of the total 1,256 Mm3. With the total irrigated area increase, irrigation water use at the end of the IMPIF period is projected to reach 2,272 Mm3. Total water use, including other non-agricultural uses is expected to reach 2,991 Mm3. As a 20-year plan the IMP has considered long-term scenarios for water supply and demand and their implications.

    The IMPIF lists six factors for developing objectives in the irrigation subsector in Malawi: 1) expansion of irrigation will itself amplify the shortage of water within certain WRAs; 2) population growth (expected to reach 30 million by 2030) will increase demand for domestic water as well as for food produced under irrigation; 3) industrial development will increase the demand for water used in factories and mines; 4) growing demand for hydro-electric power (as well as energy from other sources); 5) rising temperatures will increase evaporation and transpiration rates, possibly exacerbated by lower and/or less reliable rainfall; and, 6) increasing environmental awareness and demand for environmental flows as well as water bodies for recreational purposes.

    Comparison of the Environments for Implementation in the Two Cases

    The Yeongsan River Project-Scope and Effects

    According to KRC and KNCID(2014), the historical importance of agriculture cannot be understated as it has been the main income source of national finance to maintain and operate ancient dynasties. During the historic Korean War, the agricultural sector was ruined, and widespread famine ensued. Severe social issues erupted as a result of insufficient investment in land improvement projects to curb food shortage. Political instability in the 1960s exacerbated the situation. The 1950 attempt which made the Agrarian Reform Act allowing over 90% of farmland ownership to be passed to the farmers who worked the land and other measures did not work as well. Huge food imports from the USA, droughts, crop disease and pest damage further crippled the agriculture sector

    A new government established in 1961 had the establishment of food supplies as its most pressing issue amidst consecutive droughts, poor agricultural infrastructure, shortage of investment, lack of high technology and agricultural inputs, lack of agricultural machinery, among others. It was government’s philosophy that economic independence is only possible when food self-sufficiency is achieved. Because of this, government's policy for agricultural development was integrated in the First Five-year Economic Development Plan in 1962 during the era of authoritarian rule. The era also saw special instructions from the president on Comprehensive Agricultural Development issued in June 1965. Changes in policy for agricultural development and corresponding initiatives for ongoing infrastructural development were implemented since independence up to the 2000s are summarized in the following table.

    The Yeongson River Basin integrated Agricultural Development Project is a strategy in nature. It intended to mitigate rural poverty by increasing agricultural productivity and preventing natural disasters such as drought and flood damage through integrated development of water resources and development of multiple use land. It consisted a total of 25 projects in order to achieve its overall goal. The project also provided massive benefits to tourism and recreation. Specific goals of the project included securing agricultural water and to control floods; increased farm incomes and self-sufficiency of food, establishment of mechanized agriculture, implementation of scientific agronomy and improvement of farmland productivity, and, contributing to balanced regional advancement and industrial development by supplying lands for industrial and recreational development by tideland reclamation. Table 1

    The project had seven main components as: 1) integrated development of water resources; 2) prevention of flood and salt damage; 3) construction of irrigation systems; 4) land reclamation for farmlands, multiple use land reclamation; 5) agronomic improvement; 6) road construction; and 7) airstrip construction. Table 2 shows the various project components and their contents.

    Achievement of targets in the aforementioned project components was associated with increased agricultural productivity and farm household incomes, mitigation of natural disasters, integration and management of water system, regional economic effects (from increased yield, reduced production cost due to use machinery and reduced urban migration), tourism development, and, other technological and innovative advancements

    Legislative Environment

    The analysis of the environment for the Yeongsan Project led to isolation of some institutional factors that were deemed to have influenced the successful implementation of the project. The factors were put into two broad categories of legislative environment and environment for research and strategy for sustainability and competitiveness. Discussions with various experts, field visits and desktop review were used to collect all the information.

    The organization in the Yeongsan Project was a combination of irrigation and land under the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Affairs separating it from water for industrial and domestic use. Its legislative environment enacted relevant laws and decrees necessary to acquire and manage the water and land rights and financial resources, and the development of policies and regulations for their use and development. It guided the project authorization process, the project funding agreements and provides for definitions of powers, functions and responsibilities of the relevant institutions. It also provided delegation of authority on agricultural water use including requisition of water right to a State Owned Enterprise (SOE), the Korean Rural Community Cooperation (KRC).

    The legislation environment for the implementation of the Yeongsan Project provided for investment in rural development, rural agro industry, roads and land ownership arrangements. The rural agro industry played a vital role in supporting the production systems by providing inputs, services for value addition as well as market for the agriculture produce, which instilled zeal and attitude among communities. Additionally, with the legislation on land which includes land pension fund and clear procedure for transfer of ownership, investment in agriculture was secured.

    In Malawi, the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development is responsible for irrigation and domestic and/or industrial water. Project authorization may be from different ministry depending on financing arrangement. This gave rise to project management challenges in Malawi. While different ministries may have different priorities which affect fund disbursements, coordinating project activities in a more sustainable manner like adopting the basin approach is not possible. This resulted in spreading efforts but getting very minimal if any result. Apart from the governance issue highlighted, there was no set and clear sources (apart from the donor community) and channel of funding for irrigation development in Malawi. Some frequent organizational changes and executive actions taken in an unsatisfactory legal context posed major dares in the sub sector as they undermine the need to develop a comprehensive policy. Land ownership system also gave a sense of insecurity to possible investors and makes the actual implementation a failure as some past developments have left a reputation of land grabbing. In Malawi, lack of comprehensive legislative system as highlighted above resulted in inefficiencies of the sub sector to deliver. Table 3 shows some elements of institutional environments in which the Yeongsan Project and Malawi irrigation projects are implemented.

    Environment for Research and Sustainability and Competitiveness Strategies

    There was also a huge difference on competitiveness and sustainability strategies in the two environments. Planning at basin level and having the state owned enterprises to obtain water rights offered an opportunity to develop the water resources to the maximum level possible and plan the demand against the available supplies. In both Yeongsan and Malawi cases, however, the implementing agencies were responsible for the feasibility assessment, planning and designing, and, construction of agricultural water infrastructure though their roles were different.

    All consultative services on implementation in Korea are done by KRC who has its own directly employed staff and usually has contractual arrangements with other private institutions. The government only establishes the legislation and responsibilities of the KRC. The complexity of the sector and the high demand for improved performance led to strategic structuring of KRC to include a head office (with several departments), regional offices district offices, project offices and some institutes including research institutes. The KRC also pays more attention to existing assets. While it is being suggested that the stripping off the service fees could be detrimental to application efficiencies, management of the bulky water systems ensured high efficiencies. This has contributed to achievement of the required productivity and efficiency of the systems.

    Apart from going through the rigorous institutional evolution since its initiation in 1963, the Yeongsan Project saw an evolution in strategy for competitiveness championed by science, technology and innovation (STI). There were deliberate efforts towards research to cope with the rapid changes in the national socio-economy as well as competition in the global markets. There has been great improvement in agricultural productivity as a result of technological and innovative advances in integrated water management and water quality control using ICT, seed varieties, crop husbandry, fertilizers, and commercialization. The environment for implementation of the Yeongsan Project had, in general, has a detailed implementation policy highlighting productivity and efficiency of the systems. Research and subsequent technology and innovation led to a high degree of specialization, ingenuity and eminence. Table 4 below shows the elements of environments for implementation of the Yeongsan Project and Malawi irrigation projects.

    However, schemes in Malawi were identified by their geographical coordinates. This caused a lot of conflicts between upstream and downstream users. There were lots of unregulated developments resulting in degradation of both the catchments and the water sources as there were no any land use plans at the basin level. Operation in Malawi was left in the hands of the farmers. Government was responsible for selective maintenance whose criteria were not clearly developed. Poor market link frustrated producers and contributed to system inefficiencies due to lack of maintenance and lowered capacity of the farmers. Service fee arrangements became irregular because they were done by farmer groups and were provided for in their bye-laws. The bye-laws were defaulted for different reasons ranging from lack of capacity of the individuals as well as the groups, social cultural issues such as land ownership, and/ or individual perception. This created a vicious cycle of vulnerability presented by poor maintenance, low productivity and low farmer capacity resulting in overall low system efficiency.

    Malawi’s natural environment is characterized by unimodal rainfall pattern with over 95% of annual precipitation received within four months, fragile catchments and an economy that depends on agriculture. This demands extra attention on STI especially on areas that would spur growth in the sector including development and management of both surface and underground water resources, hydraulics, geology, seed science, husbandry practices (including mechanization), agro processing and other social economic aspects. On the contrary, development, adoption and dissemination of new technologies are a big challenge. This is because of the inherent weak institutional system that lack infrastructure and coordination arrangement for advancement of science, technology and innovation in the sub sector. The resulting effect is the inefficiency of the implementation, system; the communities remain vulnerable to weather shocks and overall low productivity.

    Direction for Improving Irrigation Development in Malawi

    Legislative Environment

    From this study, it can be deduced that a revolutionary movement in the institutional setup of the two relatively broad and related areas could mark a big step towards transformation. As it was observed, institutions have to combine resources (natural, human and financial) and technologies and innovations to achieve desired results. However, institutions are effective only when the operating environment is conducive, hence, the need for a comprehensive legislation. Method for improving the foundation for Jeongsang Dam, improvements in equipment and the use of ICT are some examples of technological achievements in the Yeongsan Project while an effective participatory approach to farmer capacity building through scientific demonstrations and other aids and the development of rural development strategy demonstrated the importance of innovation. The comprehensiveness of the approach to Yeongsan Project generated positive results which instilled zeal and attitude in the communities.

    On governance and organization, Malawi needs to understand how state owned organizations like KRC are established, organized and run. Then, Malawi has to develop and implement a comprehensive legislative support for the establishment of such an organization. The legislation should provide the structure from the national level to the smallest management unit (including project offices) and overlapping areas with relevant institutions. In the present environment where the ministry assumes executive and implementer role, efficiency will always be affected by any change of focus and will continue to haunt the sub sector. There is a need to develop and implement legislations related to sourcing finances and funding of irrigation projects. The absence of this has led to implementing department getting authorization from different ministries resulting to some challenges in project management. The KRC is one example of an organization whose presence is felt by the farming community as well as the policy maker because of the efficiency and effectiveness of its activities.

    Effective legislation of water resources planning system is also important as this would facilitate securing enough agricultural water. Among other issues, water resource planning legislations should contain in specific details to all matters that are related to different uses of water (agriculture, domestic, industrial and environment) and water resource development and conservation. It is imperative for Malawi to update the existing laws on water rights permit system and conservation and protection of water resources. It is highly recommended that planning for development and management as well as having conservation and protection of water resources be done at the WRU level and authority to issue water permit be devolved to the WRA level. It is believed that this can ease monitoring and improve efficiency.

    Environment for Research and Strategy for Sustainability and Competitiveness

    It is recommended that Malawi should device a strategy for scientific research in the sub sector to identify and implement own specific technologies and innovations in the lines of water resource development and management, enhance agricultural water productivity and investment in rural development. This comprehensive package will enables farmers to maximize productivity and profitability. But, in the face of the growing demand for water among and within different sections, a revolutionary approach to agricultural water reservoir development backed by scientific research needs to be considered for both existing schemes and those that are yet to be developed. The birth of Yeongsan Project is an outstanding example. The Shire Valley Transformation Program in Malawi is one specific case where securing water supplies in the upstream tributaries need to be considered for expected project purpose to be sustainable. Further, different technics to water resource development such as subsurface dams, conjunctive use of surface and ground water sources and water transfer should be studied and where possible implemented.

    On enhancement of agricultural water productivity in the face of diversified agricultural and social cultural practices, Malawi has to develop an effective strategy-making systems at zone level. This system should be considered in improving scheme facilities, active management (scheme level water management, maintenance, utilization and scheme level catchment conservation), enterprise selection and seed technology. To help achieve this, Malawi has to establish good links with relevant states and global institutions.

    Irrigation should be a basis for rural development programs in all areas with potential for agricultural improvement. Clear strategies to enhance the role of agricultural water in improving profitability of market-led agricultural growth need to be developed for specific zones. This should be followed by development of plans and implementation of specific investments for improving links to markets, developing institutional structures, and research and development on technologies that enhance the productivity of water and other inputs. For the Shire Valley Transformation Program, rural development investments should conduct a thorough study on crop preference in order to establish requirements for improving market links; roads, agro processing facilities and/or marketing infrastructure and local institutions. The Shire Valley Transformation Project should also consider exploring viable mechanization options to enhance productivity.

    Limitations to the Study

    The study has been conducted in South Korea where both physical and political environments are different from what prevails in Malawi. The natural endowment in South Korea is diverse; there are other vigilant sectors of economy that directly or indirectly have influenced the course of agricultural development including the Yeongsan Project. These might have an influence on financing of agricultural projects, technology and human capital development for the sector. The Yeongsan Project also had a strong political support. These two aspects of environment may affect the efficiency and effectiveness of the whole agenda to transform the sector. Stage five of the Yeongsan River Basin Integrated Agriculture Development Project was dropped because of environmental concerns. It is also possible for some future projects in Malawi to meet the same challenge.

    적 요

    말라위는 농업생산성 향상을 위해 관개시설 설치를 적극적 으로 확대하고 있는데. 주로 외국의 원조에 의존하고 있다. 따 라서 말라위의 효율적인 관개시설 구축을 위해 우리나라의 영 산강유역농업종합개발사업(이하 영산강사업) 사례를 검토한 후 정책적 시사점을 제시하였다.

    우리나라의 영산강사업은 유관기관들의 체계적인 협업 시스 템으로 장기간에 걸쳐 시행되었다. 따라서 말라위의 중장기적 인 관개시설 구축을 통한 농업생산성 향상을 위해서는 정부의 강력한 의지와 해당 사업을 주도적으로 시행할 수 있는 기관 의 역할을 분명히 할 필요가 있다. 이를 위해서는 법적으로 규정해야 할 것이다.

    현재 말라위의 사회경제적 여건은 우리나라의 영산강사업 추진 시기와는 매우 상이하다. 또한 한국의 영산강사업은 중 장기적으로 걸쳐 시행되면서 각 과정에서 시행착오를 통한 노하우(know-how) 및 기술이 축적되었다. 따라서 말라위도 영산강사업과 같은 대규모 국책사업을 일괄적으로 시행하기 보다는 테스트 베드를 거쳐 말라위 여건에 맞게 시행할 필 요가 있다.

    영산강사업은 시행 초기에 환경문제가 크게 부각되지 않았 지만, 90년대 후반부터는 ‘환경’에 대한 경각심이 커져 현재 영산강사업 5단계 설치는 중단된 상태이다. 따라서 말라위에 서도 이러한 환경문제 및 제반 정치경제적 여건에 대한 면밀 한 검토가 필요하다.

    다만, 영산강사업은 벼농사를 위한 관개시설 위주의 사업 이므로, 밭작물 위주의 관개시설은 그 형태 및 시사점이 달 라질 수 있다 . 그리고 우리나라 영산강사업은 장기간에 걸 려 축적된 노하우와 기술이 단계적으로 적용된 것으로 , 각 토목기술별로 말라위에 적용 가능한지는 추후 검토가 필요 할 것이다 . 이러한 정책적 한계점은 추후 연구과제로 남겨 둔다.

    ABBREVIATIONS

    ASWAp

    Agricultural Sector-Wide Approach

    AWID

    Agricultural Water Infrastructure Development

    GoM

    Government of Malawi

    CAADP

    Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program

    DoI

    Department of Irrigation

    FAO

    Food and agriculture Organization

    GDP

    Gross Domestic Product

    ICT

    Information and Communication Technology

    IMPIF

    Irrigation Master Plan and Investment Framework

    KRC

    Korea Rural Community Corporation

    KNCID

    Korean National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage

    MAFRA

    Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Affairs

    MGDS

    Malawi Growth and Development Strategy

    MoAIWD

    Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development

    MoLHUD

    Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development

    MoITT

    Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism

    MoNREM

    Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mining

    SOE

    State Owned Enterprise

    STI

    Science, Technology and Innovation

    SVTP

    Shire Valley Transformation Program

    WRA

    Water Resource Area

    WRB

    Water Resources Board

    WRU

    Water Resource Units

    Figure

    KSIA-30-26_F1.gif

    Malawi’s agriculture GDP and total GDP for 1970 – 2014

    Table

    Evolution of agricultural policy in South Korea

    <i>Source: KRC and KNCID(2016)</i>

    Components of the Yeongsan Project and their contents

    Source: KRC and KNCID(2014)

    Elements of institutional environments in the two cases

    Source; Study Notes

    Elements of environments for operation and scientific research in the two cases

    Source; Study Notes

    Reference

    1. ChiangMai Meeting Proceedings (1993) The institutional framework for irrigation,
    2. Government of Malawi (2014) Irrigation masterplan and investment framework.,
    3. FAO (2005) Irrigation in Africa in figures – AQUASTAT Survey,
    4. M.H. Khan (2008) Rural poverty in developing countries; Implications for public policy., Korea Rural Economic Institute,
    5. KRC and KNCID (2014) Agricultural Development in Yeongsan River Basin.,
    6. http://ivanstat.com/en/gdp/mw.html